Troubleshoot: PC

 Troubleshooting PC


  • This document contains unedited notes and has not been formally proofread.
  • The information provided in this document is intended to provide a basic understanding of certain technologies.
  • Please exercise caution when visiting or downloading from websites mentioned in this document and verify the safety of the website and software.
  • Some websites and software may be flagged as malware by antivirus programs.
  • The document is not intended to be a comprehensive guide and should not be relied upon as the sole source of information.
  • The document is not a substitute for professional advice or expert analysis and should not be used as such.
  • The document does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of any particular technology, product, or service.
  • The reader assumes all responsibility for their use of the information contained in this document and any consequences that may arise.
  • The author disclaim any liability for any damages or losses that may result from the use of this document or the information contained therein.
  • The author reserve the right to update or change the information contained in this document at any time without prior notice.

  • Any attempts to perform penetration testing or ethical hacking on systems or networks should be done with the explicit permission of the system/network owner. Unauthorized access is illegal and can result in serious legal consequences.
  • It is important to fully understand the scope of the testing and to only test within that scope. Testing outside the agreed upon scope is considered unauthorized and may result in legal action.
  • Any findings or vulnerabilities discovered during testing should be reported to the system/network owner immediately and kept confidential until a fix can be implemented.
  • It is recommended to use a separate, dedicated testing environment rather than testing on a live production system to minimize the risk of accidentally causing damage or downtime.
  • It is important to take steps to protect your own identity and prevent accidental data leaks or exposure of sensitive information during testing.
  • It is also recommended to follow a standard code of ethics for ethical hacking and penetration testing.


Cerco Training Notes


  • Basic understanding of desktop hardware
  • Booting configurations.
  • Windows installation: Clonezilla and network 
  • Dual OS installation
  • Safe mode
  • Creating - Groups, users.
  • Regedit
  • Services
  • Recovery
  • Partition 
  • Joining Domain
  • RJ45 diagram

22 Jan.

Dismantling the desktop: 

High power USB used for  : plug sockets 12v and 24v 
Eg: barcode scanner 

Checking for Hard Disk - HDD/ SSD/ Nvme ssd
  • Power cable plugged in
  • Sata cable plugged in
  • CMOS battery in place
  • power cable to motherboard in place. 
  • Ram in place.

Figure 1: Desktop Unit
Back of desktop
  • Mouse are in place
  • Keyboard are in place
  • Display cable are in place

Figure 2: Desktop Backside

#Windows Boot Settings: 

1. Boot settings: setting the order to boot up

Always USB then hard-drive.

Figure 3: Bios Settings

2. System config: 

Integrated NIC= enabled

Serial port= doesn't matter

SATA Operation: always on. if disabled can't detect HDD

AHCI- faster- newer specs

Drives: turn all 

SMART Reporting: also used for old HDD, where wearing warning can be given.

SMART : provides the temperature, other details. 

New SSD are chips, will die dead any moment., ensure backup

USB config: enable all

Audio: enable

Miscellaneous Devices: enable

Figure 4: BIOS settings

3. Power management: 

Ac recovery: leave it power off.

For server: keep it as power on. 


where there 100 of computer when all comes on at same time there will be power surge

Auto on-time: leave it off

Fan control override: leave it off. 

Wake a LAN: turn on when required for the maintenance.

Post behaviour: 

Disabled for a laptop. Or for bill till, where there is only touch screens no keyboards attached.

23 jan.

#Step up to install : Windows from servers:

1. Boot settings: 

2. Boot sequence: enable onboard NIC and move to top

3. System config: enable w/pxe

4. Click apply then exit

5. Then press F12 on reboot, while seeing the message to press F12.

6. User4@room.local/ Password

7. Select windows 7--> unallocated space

#Dual boot wait seconds


Select boot tab: change the default to windows 10. Change sec to 10

#Now creating files on window 7/ Media drive. 

Same drive is common to both OS platform

#Computer management

1. Local users and group

2. Administrator: double click, enable then apply. 

3. Right click set password

1. Win+pause/break key: 

2. Rename PC. 

3. Set regional language: to UK

4. Administrator regional settings 

Device Manager: 

Network adaptor are shown. 

This NIC card can be disabled in bios so the visibility cannot be seen in device management


Workstation: the service is workstation

Server: the service is server

If the server folder error: comes check for the workstation service is enabled and running and then check also for NIC card enabled in bios.

unable to open the server folder the above service is disabled. 

Local policy :

Account policies: password policy can change 


Computer/hkey_local_machine/software/Microsoft/WindowsNT/current version/winlogon

Right click empty space--> new-->string value. 

AutoAdminLogOn : value = 1

DefaultUserName: value = Administrator

DefaultPassword: value= Password

Click on shell: change the value to



Now the system will load only in the application paint

Now ctrl+alt+del

File -->new task--> regedit.

Change the script back to explorer.exe. 

Now back to usual log on page. 


Run command: 

Shell:common startup

Add the program shortcuts or webpages. They will load every time logged on.




This will give the full path and the user name can be changed on the address bar from administrator to local admin


#Windows safe mode: in window 10

1. Shift+ restart

2. Troubleshoot:> advance options:> startup settings:> Restart : press4


Msconfig: Boot tab

1. Select safe boot and base video.

2. This log on to safe boot all the time. 



1. Computer management

2. right click on unallocated partition, follow the steps.



local-users and groups

right click -> new - Finance 

same for to create group -  sales


right click -> new - Jack 

same to create the user - Jill 


jack to finance group - double click on jack -> member of -> add the group name, click apply.


Sharing a folder to the users Jack and Jill. 

folder properties and advance sharing, then add the Jack and jill users.

in the security tab, add same users.

Security -> advance -> disable inheritance -> select convert options. 


#Change  the domain:

win+pause/break -> change domain-> domain= room.local

username: domainmanager/ Password

then click ok and sys will restart. 

click other user then login as user4/Passo0rd

Static profile: stays on the local machine

Roaming user: is in server and logged into any machines will sync the files. 


24 Jan.


#CMD:> bcdedit

#Corrupting the boot files

disk-management : right click on system files, assign a drive letter - F

now make the drive D as active system drive - right click and select the option. 

Now restart - error shown no boot files .

Now you need to you recovery USB: 

US keyboard -> troubleshoot-> command prompt 

cmd:> diskpart

DISKPART:> list disk

DISKPART:>select disk 0

DISKPART:> list part

Figure : Diskpart 

DISKPART:> Select part 1

DISKPART:> active

DISKPART:> exit 


System to boot in as normal. 

Figure 5: DISK partition 


Basic Net work commands

c:> ipconfig

c:> ipconfig /all 

how to copy the output and email

c:> ipconfig /all > ipdetails.txt

c:> type ipdetails.txt

c:> doskey /history 

Dir and Sub dir list

c:> dir /S >dirdetails.txt

c:> getmac >macdetails.txt 

c:> ping rserver

useful for trouble shooting to find the traceroute. 

c:> tracert rserver 


SAN - System area networks - like supercomputers are held in as server and other computer users are hooked to the supercomputers to perform the related operations.

SAN- Storage Area Network 

EPN - Enterprise area network

VPN- Virtual private area network .

HUBS: when system transmits data all the machines will receive the same data. 

Switches: the system uses the mac addresses to send to that particular mac device to receive. enabling the security. 

#Network Connections

right click on start - 

advance network settings--> change adapter settings 

double click on the adaptor -> properties -> IPV4  -> adding the ip address and DNS server details. 
Figure 6: DNS, WINS server details

advance -> wins tab-> add the address , next DNS Tab- DNS suffix for this connection: add the room.local

Figure 7: IP, Server  address

Testing ping
c:> ping training2

#Release the ip

c:> ipconfig /release

c:> ipconfig /renew

c:> ipconfig

IPV4 169.254.*.*  = this means the server is not working. any IP starting with 169 means windows has assigned the ip and not the DCHP client - the router or the server has assigned. 


Run: \\rserver
install antivirus : SophosUpdate

#Map network Drive

right click on myPC -> map network drive -> \\rserver ->search select the folder. 

RJ45 Diagram
Figure 8 : RJ45 Diagram



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