HINDU MARRi. ACT

 THE HINDU MARRIAGE ACT 1955

Introduction

  • This document allows one to decode the BARE ACTS for better understanding.

Disclaimer

  • This document is for educational purposes only and not for any other purpose except for understanding of the BARE ACTS.
  • Names and examples used are for educational purposes only.
  • There may be spelling mistakes and proofreading has not been done.
  • This document is an extension of rough notes taken in class.

Acknowledgments

  • Respective BARE ACTS were used as references in preparing this document.
  • Thanks to the professor for sharing knowledge and references used in this document.

THE HINDU MARRIAGE ACT, 1955

HMA 2. Application of Act —

(1) This Act applies—
(a) to any person who is a Hindu by religion in any of its forms or developments, including a
Virashaiva, a Lingayat or a follower of the Brahmo, Prarthana or Arya Samaj,

to any person who is a Hindu by religion in any of its forms or developments, including a

Virashaiva, a Lingayat or a follower of the Brahmo, Prarthana or Arya Samaj,


(b) to any person who is a Buddhist, Jaina or Sikh by religion, and

to any person who is a Buddhist, Jaina or Sikh by religion, and

(c) 

to any other person domiciled in the territories to which this Act extends who is not a Muslim,

Christian, Parsi or Jew by religion, unless it is proved that any such person would not have been

governed by the Hindu law or by any custom or usage as part of that law in respect of any of the

matters dealt with herein if this Act had not been passed.


to any other person domiciled in the territories to which this Act extends who is not a Muslim, Christian, Parsi or Jew by religion, unless it is proved that any such person would not have been governed by the Hindu law or by any custom or usage as part of that law in respect of any of the matters dealt with herein if this Act had not been passed.


E.g Point “C” is important for interview questions. 

Explanation.—The following persons are Hindus, Buddhists, Jainas or Sikhs by religion, as the case

may be:—

(a) 

any child, legitimate or illegitimate, both of whose parents are Hindus, Buddhists, Jainas or Sikhs by religion;

(b) 

any child, legitimate or illegitimate, one of whose parents is a Hindu, Buddhist, Jaina or Sikh by religion and who is brought up as a member of the tribe, community, group or family to which such parent belongs or belonged; and


E.g  if anyone of the parents is Hindu and that child is brought in customs of HINDU then only will be considered as HINDU.

(c) any person who is a convert or re-convert to the Hindu, Buddhist, Jaina or Sikh religion.
(2) 

Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), nothing contained in this Act shall apply to the members of any Scheduled tribe within the meaning of clause (25) of article 366 of the Constitution unless the Central Government, by notification in the Official Gazette, otherwise directs.


E.g this act is not applicable to ST unless notified by the Government.

(3) 

The expression “Hindu” in any portion of this Act shall be construed as if it included a person who, though not a Hindu by religion, is, nevertheless, a person to whom this Act applies by virtue of the provisions contained in this section.


E.g : even not a HINDU, but his way of life follows the said ways in this section then hindu marriage act will apply.

HMA 3. Definitions.—In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—

(a) the expressions “custom” and “usage” signify any rule which, having been continuously and uniformly observed for a long time, has obtained the force of law among Hindus in any local area, tribe, community, group or family:

 

E.g Long term = has to be decided by the court.

 

Provided that the rule is certain and not unreasonable or opposed to public policy; and Provided further that in the case of a rule applicable only to a family it has not been discontinued by the family;

E.g Principle of Natural Justice and Doctrine of Public Policy 

E.g any meat shops opened opposite of religious places is unreasonable.

E.g any liquor shops not be opened opposite of religious places.

(b) “district court” means, 

in any area for which there is a city civil court, that court, and in any other area the principal civil court of original jurisdiction, and includes any other civil court which may be specified by the State Government, by notification in the Official Gazette, as having jurisdiction in respect of the matters dealt with in this Act;


 (c) “full blood” and “half blood”—

two persons are said to be related to each other by full blood when they are descended from a common ancestor by the same wife and by half blood when they are descended from a common ancestor but by different wives;


E.g half blood = same husband & different wifes. 


 (d) “uterine blood”—

two persons are said to be related to each other by uterine blood when they are descended from a common ancestress but by different husbands;

Explanation.—In clauses (c) and (d), “ancestor” includes the father and “ancestress” the mother;


(f) 
(i) “sapinda relationship” 

with reference to any person extends as far as the third generation (inclusive) in the line of ascent through the mother, and the fifth (inclusive) in the line of ascent through the father, the line being traced upwards in each case from the person concerned, who is to be counted as the first generation;

(ii) two persons are said to be “sapindas” of each other if one is a lineal ascendant of the

other within the limits of sapinda relationship, or if they have a common lineal ascendant who is

within the limits of sapinda relationship with reference to each of them;


(g) “degrees of prohibited relationship”-

two persons are said to be within the “degrees of prohibited relationship”—

(i) if one is a lineal ascendant of the other; or

(ii) if one was the wife or husband of a lineal ascendant or descendant of the other; or

E.g when a mother is divorced and remarried & a Girl child is born. After the death of the mother the new husband can't marry the girl.

 


(iii) if one was the wife of the brother or of the father’s or mother’s brother or of the grandfather’s or grandmother’s brother of the other; or


E.g wife of your own brother , wife of your father’s brother(chitappa)  & mother’s brother(Mama), wife of your grandfather’s brother & grandmother’s brother. 


(iv) if the two are brother and sister, uncle and niece, aunt and nephew, or children of brother and sister or of two brothers or of two sisters;


E.g Uncle = yours mother’s brother and you (niece)

Aunt = your father’s sister and you (nephew)


Explanation.—For the purposes of clauses (f) and (g), relationship includes—

(i) relationship by half or uterine blood as well as by full blood;

(ii) illegitimate blood relationship as well as legitimate;

(iii) relationship by adoption as well as by blood;

and all terms of relationship in those clauses shall be construed accordingly.


HMA 5. Conditions for a Hindu marriage.—

A marriage may be solemnized between any two Hindus, if

the following conditions are fulfilled, namely:—

(i) neither party has a spouse living at the time of the marriage;

(ii) at the time of the marriage, neither party

(a) is incapable of giving a valid consent to it in consequence of unsoundness of mind; or


(b) though capable of giving a valid consent, has been suffering from mental disorder of such a kind or to such an extent as to be unfit for marriage and the procreation of children; or


(c) has been subject to recurrent attacks of insanity


E.g the state of being seriously mentally ill; madness


(iii) the bridegroom has completed the age of twenty-one years and the bride, the age

of eighteen years at the time of the marriage;


(iv) the parties are not within the degrees of prohibited relationship unless the custom or usage governing each of them permits of a marriage between the two;


(v) the parties are not sapindas of each other, unless the custom or usage governing each of them permits of a marriage between the two;


HMA 7. Ceremonies for a Hindu marriage.—

(1) A Hindu marriage may be solemnized in accordance with the customary rites and ceremonies of either party thereto.


E.g : when the bride or groom have different customs, either one of customs is followed then it is valid (solemnized) hindu marriage.


(2) Where such rites and ceremonies include the Saptapadi (that is, the taking of seven steps by the bridegroom and the bride jointly before the sacred fire), the marriage becomes complete and binding when the seventh step is taken.


E.g when the marriage is  stopped at the 6the circle, then it is not considered as solemnized.


HMA 8. Registration of Hindu marriages

(4) 

The Hindu Marriage Register shall at all reasonable times be open for inspection, and shall be admissible as evidence of the statements therein contained and certified extracts therefrom shall, on application, be given by the Registrar on payment to him of the prescribed fee.

(5) 

Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, the validity of any Hindu marriage shall in no way be affected by the omission to make the entry.


E.g In this Hindu marriage Act, there is no law mentioned about the requirement of Parents while registering the Marriage. 


E.g Anywhere in this law has said Parents signature or consent is required.


RESTITUTION OF CONJUGAL RIGHTS AND JUDICIAL SEPARATION

HMA 9. Restitution of conjugal right.—

When either the husband or the wife has, without reasonable excuse, withdrawn from the society of the other, the aggrieved party may apply, by petition to the district court, for restitution of conjugal rights and the court, on being satisfied of the truth of the statements made in such petition and that there is no legal ground why the application should not be granted, may decree restitution of conjugal rights accordingly.


E.g : when the marriage b/w 25 yrs of boy or girl is done. After 3 months the girl moves to her parents home and denies coming back to her husband's house. 

Now the boy can file the restitution of conjugal rights.


Explanation.—Where a question arises whether there has been reasonable excuse for withdrawal from the society, the burden of proving reasonable excuse shall be on the person who has withdrawn from the society.


HMA 13. Divorce.—


Shortcut to remember the 7 grounds for divorce
  1. Adultery
  2. Religion
  3. Mental
  4. Leprosy
  5. AIDS
  6. Sunayasam
  7. 7 years 


(1) Any marriage solemnized, whether before or after the commencement of this Act,

may, on a petition presented by either the husband or the wife, be dissolved by a decree of divorce on the

ground that the other party—


  (i) has, after the solemnization of the marriage, had voluntary sexual intercourse with any person other than his or her spouse;

 

E.g Adultery.

(ia) has, after the solemnization of the marriage, treated the petitioner with cruelty; or


E.g Cruelty : which is going to harm mental health of the person 

(ib) has deserted the petitioner for a continuous period of not less than two years immediately preceding the presentation of the petition; or


E.g march 1st   wife has left and on march 1st 2022 can be filed, when there is no medium(video call) of relationship. (means deserted)


(ii) has ceased to be a Hindu by conversion to another religion;


E.g if the wife has converted into muslim or christen then on this ground divorce can be appllied. 


(iii) has been incurably of unsound mind, or has been suffering continuously or intermittently from mental disorder of such a kind and to such an extent that the petitioner cannot reasonably be expected to live with the respondent.


Explanation.—In this clause,—

(a) the expression “mental disorder” means mental illness, arrested or incomplete

development of mind, psychopathic disorder or any other disorder or disability of mind and

includes schizophrenia;

(b) the expression “psychopathic disorder” means a persistent disorder or disability of mind (whether or not including sub—normality of intelligence) which results in abnormally aggressive or seriously irresponsible conduct on the part of the other party, and whether or not it requires or is susceptible to medical treatment; or

E,g they will hurt the others

E.g when one threatens about committing sucide to make act meet, will not 


(v) has been suffering from venereal disease in a communicable form;

E.g Aids

(vi) has renounced the world by entering any religious order;

E.g Sanyasam 

(vii) has not been heard of as being alive for a period of seven years or more by those persons

who would naturally have heard of it, had that party been alive;


(1A) Either party to a marriage


(i) that there has been no resumption of cohabitation as between the parties to the marriage for a period of one year or upwards after the passing of a decree for judicial separation in a proceeding to which they were parties;


(ii) that there has been no restitution of conjugal rights as between the parties to the marriage for a period of one year or upwards after the passing of a decree for restitution of conjugal rights in a proceeding to which they were parties.


E.g here the court has ordered the girl to live with the husband. But the girl denies to stay and after the one form the order the husband can apply divorce 


(2) A wife may also present a petition for the dissolution of her marriage by a decree of divorce on the ground,—

(i) before this act came into effect , 

E.g :  should not have a married or living spouse. 

(ii) that the husband has, since the solemnization of the marriage, been guilty of rape, sodomy or bestiality;

(iii)

E.g here when order is given for monthly maintenance and cohabitation between the parties has not been resumed for one year or upwards.


(iv) that her marriage (whether consummated or not) was solemnized before she attained the age of fifteen years and she has repudiated the marriage after attaining that age but before attaining the age of eighteen years.

E.g after attending 15 yrs & before 18 yrs , the girl is fighting not wanting to live in this marriage. On this ground can be applied divorce.


HMA 13A. Alternate relief in divorce proceedings.—

In any proceeding under this Act, on a petition for dissolution of marriage by a decree of divorce, except in so far as the petition is founded on the grounds mentioned in 

clauses (ii) = change the religion

(vi) = sanyasam 

and (vii) = not heard for more than 7 years 

of sub-section (1) of section 13, 

the court may, if it considers it just so to do having regard to the circumstances of the case, pass instead a decree for judicial separation.


HMA 13B. Divorce by mutual consent —

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act a petition for dissolution

of marriage by a decree of divorce may be presented to the district court by both the parties to a marriage together, whether such marriage was solemnized before or after the commencement of the Marriage Laws (Amendment) Act, 1976 (68 of 1976), on the ground that they have been living separately for a period of one year or more, that they have not been able to live together and that they have mutually agreed that the marriage should be dissolved.


(2) On the motion of both the parties made not earlier than six months after the date of the presentation of the petition referred to in sub-section (1) and not later than eighteen months after the said date, if the petition is not withdrawn in the meantime, the court shall, on being satisfied, after hearing the parties and after making such inquiry as it thinks fit, that a marriage has been solemnized and that the averments in the petition are true, pass a decree of divorce declaring the marriage to be dissolved with effect from the date of the decree.


E.g when wanting to withdraw divorce on mutual concern not before 6 months and not more than 18 months. 

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25 Aug  

Daily One Legal Word : 

Corpus delicti 


– The facts and circumstances constituting a crime and Concrete evidence of a crime, such as a corpse (dead body).


Also, it refers to the principle that ‘a crime must be proved to have occurred before a person can be convicted of committing that crime.’ (This definition is mostly used in Western Law.)

Daily One Advocacy Rule : 


Things said in Law books can be very rarely seen to be followed in the society. An Advocate must go according to the existing society.


HMA 10. Judicial separation.—

1 (1) Either party to a marriage, whether solemnised before or after the

commencement of this Act, may present a petition praying for a decree for judicial separation on any of the grounds specified in sub-section (1) of section 13, and in the case of a wife also on any of the grounds specified in sub-section 

(2) thereof, as grounds on which a petition for divorce might have been presented.


(2) Where a decree for judicial separation has been passed, it shall no longer be obligatory for the petitioner to cohabit with the respondent, but the court may, on the application by petition of either party and on being satisfied of the truth of the statements made in such petition, rescind the decree if it considers it just and reasonable to do so.


Cohabitation means mere act of physical relationship
Consummation means complete for the purpose of the marriage is fulfilled.   Means satisfying once physical needs. 

NULLITY OF MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE

HMA 11. Void marriages.—

Any marriage solemnised after the commencement of this Act shall be null and void and may, on a petition presented by either party thereto [against the other party], be so declared by a decree of nullity if it contravenes any one of the conditions specified in clauses (i), (iv) and (v) of section 5.


E.g contravenes means contradiction 


E.g when husband comes to know that they are in within the degree of sapinda relationship and wanted 


E.g Divorce means Marriage is legally valid


HMA 12. Voidable marriages.—

(1) Any marriage solemnised, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, shall be voidable and may be annulled by a decree of nullity on any of the following grounds, namely:—


E.g If there is a solution to make this as Void then it is called a Voidable situation .


(a) that the marriage has not been consummated owing to the impotence of the respondent; or


E.g Consummated = Natural persons needs is not satisfied or complete 


(b) that the marriage is in contravention of the condition specified in clause (ii) of section 5; or


E.g : after Marriage came to know about the unsound mind, Insane 

Legal terms / terminology 

Unsound person doesn't know what the are doing


(c) that the consent of the petitioner, or where the consent of the guardian in marriage of the petitioner was required under section 5 as it stood immediately before the commencement of the Child Marriage Restraint (Amendment) Act, 1978 (2 of 1978)], the consent of such guardian was obtained by force or by fraud as to the nature of the ceremony or as to any material fact or circumstances concerning the respondent; or

E.g material fact = checking whether boy is  having earning or any other

(d) that the respondent was at the time of the marriage pregnant by some person other than the petitioner.


(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), no petition for annulling a marriage—


E.g Notwithstanding means 


(a) on the ground specified in clause (c) of sub-section (1) shall be entertained if—

(i) the petition is presented more than one year after the force had ceased to operate or, as the case may be, the fraud had been discovered; or


E,g within One has to be filed 


(ii) the petitioner has, with his or her full consent, lived with the other party to the marriage as husband or wife after the force had ceased to operate or, as the case may be, the fraud had been discovered;


E.g, after the force is ceased then within one year it has to be filed. 

E.g Forced Ceased means the years may be (1 or 2 or 5 or 10 yrs)


(b) on the ground specified in clause (d) of sub-section (1) shall be entertained unless the court is satisfied—

(i) that the petitioner was at the time of the marriage ignorant of the facts alleged;


Legal terms  E.g facts alleged means alligation 


(ii) that proceedings have been instituted in the case of a marriage solemnised before the commencement of this Act within one year of such commencement and in the case of marriages solemnised after such commencement within one year from the date of the marriage; and


E.g  after there act is force with in one year has to be filed 


(iii) that marital intercourse with the consent of the petitioner has not taken place since the discovery by the petitioner of the existence of the said ground.


E.g husband came to know that his wife is pregnant within 1 one and came to know she is pregnant before marriage.  From that time onwards he has not had a physical relationship. 


HMA 14. No petition for divorce to be presented within one year of marriage.


E.g must exceptions = if proven cruelty and suffering is proved within one year divorce can be applied 

HMA 15. Divorced persons when may marry again.—

Wait till the petition is over

HMA 16. Legitimacy of children of void and voidable marriages.—

Kids are legitimate and have rights only to self earned property of parents. 


HMA 17. Punishment of bigamy.—

Any marriage between two Hindus solemnized after the commencement of this Act is void if at the date of such marriage either party had a husband or wife living; and the provisions of sections 494 and 495 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (45 of 1860), shall apply accordingly.

HMA 18. Punishment for contravention of certain other conditions for a Hindu marriage

E.g if you are opposing the hindu marriage acts, imprisonment of 15 days and fine of 1000 rs


conditions specified in clauses (iii), (iv), and (v) of section 5 shall be punishable


(a) in the case of contravention of the condition specified in clause (iii) of section 5, with

rigorous imprisonment which may extend to two years or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees, or with both

(b) in the case of a contravention of the condition specified in clause (iv) or clause (v) of section 5, with simple imprisonment which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both. 

JURISDICTION AND PROCEDURE

HMA 19. Court to which petition shall be presented.—

Every petition under this Act shall be presented to the District Court within the local limits of whose ordinary original civil jurisdiction:—


HMA 20. Contents and verification of petitions.—

E.g - only the facts must be provided 


HMA 21 Application of Act 5 of 1908 :- by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.

HMA 22. Proceedings to be in camera and may not be printed or published.—

(1) Every proceeding under this Act shall be conducted in camera and it shall not be lawful for any person to print or publish any matter in relation to any such proceeding except a judgment of the High Court or of the Supreme Court printed or published with the previous permission of the court.


E.g all cases with respect to hindu marriage act  will happen in private or closed court.

E.g here not allowed to print any proceedings  in any media ;


HMA 23. Decree in proceedings.—

E.g Guidelines given to the court how to proceed.

HMA 24. Maintenance pendente lite and expenses of proceedings

Legal terms : pendente lite means = during trial/ litigation 

Where in any proceeding under this Act it appears to the court that either the wife or the husband, as the case may be, has no independent income sufficient for her or his support and the necessary expenses of the proceeding, it may, on the application of the wife or the husband, order the respondent to pay to the petitioner the expenses of the proceeding, and monthly during the proceeding such sum as, having regard to the petitioner’s own income and the income of the respondent, it may seem to the court to be reasonable.


E.g when either does not have enough  money to maintain for the proceedings 



Provided that the application for the payment of the expenses of the proceeding and such monthly sum during the proceeding, shall, as far as possible, be disposed of within sixty days from the date of service of notice on the wife or the husband, as the case may be.

(3) If the court is satisfied that the party in whose favour an order has been made under this section has re-married or, if such party is the wife, that she has not remained chaste, or, if such party is the husband, that he has had sexual intercourse with any woman outside wedlock, it may at the instance of the other party vary, modify or rescind any such order in such manner as the court may deem just.

HMA 25. Permanent alimony and maintenance.—

(1) Any court exercising jurisdiction under this Act may, at the time of passing any decree or at any time subsequent thereto, on application made to it for the purpose by either the wife or the husband, as the case may be, order that the respondent shall pay to the applicant for her or his maintenance and support such gross sum or such monthly or periodical sum for a term not exceeding the life of the applicant as, having regard to the respondent’s own income and other property, if any, the income and other property of the applicant 4[the conduct of the parties and other circumstances of the case], it may seem to the court to be just, and any such payment may be secured, if necessary, by a charge on the immovable property of the respondent.


E.g if claim for maintenance then order the opposite party 


Income + property 


E.g 125 CRPC : when maintenance is also filed under CRPC and now she is filing under maintenance Hindu marriage act sec 25. Then the amount will be taken into consideration from 125.



(2) If the court is satisfied that there is a change in the circumstances of either party at any time after it has made an order under sub-section (1), it may, at the instance of either party, vary, modify or rescind any such order in such manner as the court may deem just.



HMA 26. Custody of children.— [this sec is directed to the court]

In any proceeding under this Act, the court may, from time to time, pass such interim orders 


E.g interim orders =  while trial is going on. 


E.g Keeping in mind the  maintenance of the  kids and can have success and healthy life. 

E.g when both the parties are wealthy and ready to provide all necessary needs, the court may ask the KIDs preferences.


and make such provisions in the decree as it may deem just and proper with respect to the custody, maintenance and education of minor children, consistently with their wishes, wherever possible, and may, after the decree, upon application by petition for the purpose, make from time to time, all such orders and provisions with respect to the custody, maintenance and education of such children as might have been made by such decree or interim orders in case the proceeding for obtaining such decree were still pending, and the court may also from time to time revoke, suspend or vary any such orders and provisions previously made:

Provided that the application with respect to the maintenance and education of the minor children, pending the proceeding for obtaining such decree, shall, as far as possible, be disposed of within sixty days from the date of service of notice on the respondent.



HMA 27. Disposal of property.—[guideline for the court]

In any proceeding under this Act, the court may make such provisions in the decree as it deems just and proper with respect to any property presented, at or about the time of marriage, which may belong jointly to both the husband and the wife.


E.g this sections is only related to Gifts received during marriage

E.g when the property is registered on wife names and the same will be divided- but this can be done only with help of Advocate. 


HMA 28. Appeals from decrees and orders

(4) Every appeal under this section shall be preferred within a 3[period of ninety days] from the date

of the decree or order.


SAVINGS AND REPEALS

Legal Terms : Savings = means exceptions 

HMA 29. Savings.—

(1) A marriage solemnized between Hindus before the commencement of this Act,

which is otherwise valid, shall not be deemed to be invalid or ever to have been invalid by reason only of the fact that the parties thereto belonged to the same gotra or pravara or belonged to different religions, castes or sub-divisions of the same caste.


E.g when same gotras are married, then will not be invalid just for the same reason alone. 


(2) Nothing contained in this Act shall be deemed to affect any right recognised by custom or conferred by any special enactment to obtain the dissolution of a Hindu marriage, whether solemnized before or after the commencement of this Act.


E.g this act will not affect any customs. 


(3) Nothing contained in this Act shall affect any proceeding under any law for the time being in force for declaring any marriage to be null and void or for annulling or dissolving any marriage or for judicial separation pending at the commencement of this Act, and any such proceeding may be continued and determined as if this Act had not been passed.


E.g This act does not affect any other law. 

E.g when a new act is made now and the law will also be taken into account. 

 

(4) Nothing contained in this Act shall be deemed to affect the provisions contained in the Special Marriage Act, 1954, (43 of 1954) with respect to marriages between Hindus solemnized under that Act, whether before or after the commencement of this Act.

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Updated : 2021

Key word search:

THE INDIAN PENAL CODE, 1860 [IPC],
THE CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE, 1973 [CRPC],
THE HINDU MARRIAGE ACT, 1955 [HMA],
THE INDIAN EVIDENCE ACT, 1872 [IEA],
THE CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, 1908 [CPC],
THE PROTECTION OF WOMEN FROM DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ACT, 2005 [DVA],
THE TRANSFER OF PROPERTY ACT, 1882 [TPA],
THE INDIAN EASEMENT ACT, 1882 [IEA],
THE LIMITATION ACT, 1963 [LIA],

THE INDIAN PENAL CODE
THE CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
THE HINDU MARRIAGE ACT
THE INDIAN EVIDENCE ACT
THE CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE
THE PROTECTION OF WOMEN FROM DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ACT
THE TRANSFER OF PROPERTY ACT,
THE INDIAN EASEMENT ACT
THE LIMITATION ACT
#IPC #CRPC #DVA #HMA
Criminal Major Acts
a Handbook of notes
Law of India  
Indian law books 

Indian law bare acts

For complete link look into Criminal Major Acts Notes

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