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ISO 27001 and 27002

ISO 27001 & 27002 Notes


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  • Any attempts to perform penetration testing or ethical hacking on systems or networks should be done with the explicit permission of the system/network owner. Unauthorized access is illegal and can result in serious legal consequences.
  • It is important to fully understand the scope of the testing and to only test within that scope. Testing outside the agreed upon scope is considered unauthorized and may result in legal action.
  • Any findings or vulnerabilities discovered during testing should be reported to the system/network owner immediately and kept confidential until a fix can be implemented.
  • It is recommended to use a separate, dedicated testing environment rather than testing on a live production system to minimize the risk of accidentally causing damage or downtime.
  • It is important to take steps to protect your own identity and prevent accidental data leaks or exposure of sensitive information during testing.
  • It is also recommended to follow a standard code of ethics for ethical hacking and penetration testing.


  • ISO/IEC 27001: 2013 & 27002: 2013
  • ISO/IEC 27001: 2022 & 27002: 2022
  • Lead implementer Professional ISO /IEC 27001:2013

What key insights can be gained from learning about ISO 27001:

  • How to create and implement the Information System Management within the organization.
  • Discuss on the Framework based on the ISO 27001
  • Three pillars: Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability

Two words on Knowledge and Skill. 

Learning Objectives 

  • ISM
  • Benefits of ISM
  • Requirements of 27001

  • Conduct baseline review: we will get the skills to conduct GAP analysis
  • Will have Implementation skills
  • Explain the concepts of Project management

Information Security management 

What is Information Security management?

Three pillars: [CIA]
  • Confidentiality, 
  • Integrity and 
  • Availability 

Non- Repudiation: 
  • Means cannot be challenged by anybody.
Integrity: of information: 
  • Means unaltered information. Information cannot be changed in-between end to end.
Information processing facility: 
  • Also need to secure the in-between facility which is processing the information. 
Business Continuity:
  • Business Continuity to some extent will be part of the Information Security Management system. And there will be separate Business continuity and Disaster management.
Life cycle of information:
  • How the information should be discarded. 
Other Benefits Information Security Management [ISM] 
  • Reduce Security incidents, increase staff retention, Protection of brand and reputation, reduce costs of correction, customer retention, etc
Background of ISO 27001 / ISO 27002
  • Framework: Sets of Principle, policy’s, rules, guidelines make a whole framework.
Background of ISO 27001 / ISO 27002
  • Framework: Sets of Principle, policy’s, rules, guidelines make a whole framework.
History of ISO 27001 and ISO 27002

  • BSI started in 1901, wanted to start Tube railways and floated in tender. The big problem was getting 5 different plans which had different dimensions. This created the problem that they are not compatible within each other. 
  • BS7799 :1995: - British standards published in 1995 
  • 2005: ISO re- nomenclature and published the 27001 by getting from BS.

Difference b/w to 27001 and 27002:
  • 27001: What has to be done.
  • 27002: How it has to be done: - Implementation guideline:

ISO 27001

Clause 4: Context of the organization

  • What are: - Internal Issue, External issue and Interested parties?
  • Interested parties: Promoters or Shareholders, Employees, Government, neighbours, customers, vendors, etc.
  • Internal issue: When there are internal strikes. 
  • External issue: Government regulatory compliance
  • Here boundaries are set for the rules and boundaries. 
  • e.g.: in Some countries security guards will be present to collect the ID proof and registry entry is made. The same company operating in JAPAN has no security guard. Since there is no practice of security guards in JAPAN. 


  • Plan
    • requirements: - 
    • Clause 4 Context of the org. / 
    • 5 leadership / 
    • 6 Planning / 
    • 7 Support
  • DO: 
    • implement: - 
    • Clause 8 Operation
  • Check: 
    • Audits/ gaps/ managements review: - 
    • Clause 9 Performance evaluation
  • Act
    • Results/ improvement: - 
    • Clause 10 Improvement

Legal, regulatory and contractual:

  • Regulatory Body: - RBI is the regulatory Body, SEBI regulatory for Stock exchanges
  • Legal: Requirements from the government
  • Contract: requirements which are passed on by working with clients which are laid upon by the regulatory body. 
  • Statutory and regulatory requirements: As an ISMS manager: just telling them to follow. Do not be a SME in Statutory field to implement ISMS. Show what are the list of Statutory and regulatory requirements you are adhered to. 

Captive environment: 

working under other organization: - Policies, regulation, contractual terms will be passed on to the vendor organization also. 

Shall means mandatory
May means optional

Clause 4 Context of the organization

4.1 Understanding the organization and its context
4.2 Understanding the needs and expectations of interested parties
4.3 Determining the scope of the information security management system
4.4 Information security management system

Clause 5 Leadership

5.1 Leadership and commitment 
5.2 Policy
5.3 Organizational roles, responsibilities and authorities

Top management should create and provide resources,
Create security Policy, security objectives 

Clause 6 Planning

6.1 Actions to address risks and opportunities
6.1.1 General
6.1.2 Information security risk assessment

6.1.3 Information security risk treatment
  • NOTE 1 Organizations can design controls as required, or identify them from any source.
  • NOTE 2 Annex A contains a list of possible information security controls. Users of this document are
  • directed to Annex A to ensure that no necessary information security controls are overlooked.
  • NOTE 3 The information security controls listed in Annex A are not exhaustive and additional information
  • security controls can be included if needed.

6.2 Information security objectives and planning to achieve them

Objective should be Measurable or quantitative and Monitored year on year basis 
E.g., Objective 
  • Zero security data breach
  • 100 % compliance to infosec audit
  • As per policy all the employees will change the password every 90 days
  • 100% of pen-testing to happen for all the projects in every quarter.
  • 98% of awareness of Infosec training has to be completed by the vendors

6.3 Planning of changes

Clause 7 Support

7.1 Resources
7.2 Competence
  • By three ways: Education arranging training and Experience
7.3 Awareness
  • Senior management has to create awareness about Information security among the employees. 
7.4 Communication
7.5 Documented information

Clause 8 Operation 

Clause 8 is also the DO part from PDCA
8.1 Operational planning and control
8.2 Information security risk assessment
8.3 Information security risk treatment

Clause 9 Performance evaluation

9.1 Monitoring, measurement, analysis and evaluation
9.2 Internal audit
9.3 Management review

  • Here Monitoring and measurement is done. 
  • The Objectives which are identified earlier will be monitored and measured.
  • These audits internal and external are conducted
  •  Documentation must be maintained
Internal Audit
  • Conformance and non – conformance 
  • As an external auditor will look into the internal NC’s are reported and closed. 

Clause 10 Improvement 

10.1 Nonconformity and corrective action
10.2 Continual improvement

PDCA: Matrix

4 Context of the organization
  • Understanding of context.
  • Expectations of interested parties.
  • Scope and ISMS.
5 Leadership
  • Management commitment.
  • IS policy.
  • Roles, responsibilities and authorities.
6 Planning
  • Actions to address risk and opportunity.
  • Infosec objectives.
7 Support
  • Resources.
  • Competence.
  • Awareness.
  • Communication.
  • Documented Information.

8 Operation
  • Operational planning and control.
  • Risk assessment.
  • Risk treatment.
9 Performance and Evaluation
  • Monitoring, measurement, analysis and evaluation.
  • Internal audit.
  • Management review.

10 Improvement
  • Nonconformity and corrective action.
  • Continual improvement.

ISO 27002 2022

Controls are Grouped Under:
  • Organizational controls
  • People controls
  • Physical controls
  • Technological controls

5. Organizational controls 
5.1. Policies for information security
5.2. Information security roles and responsibilities
5.3. Segregation of duties
5.4. Management responsibilities
5.5. Contact with authorities
5.6. Contact with special interest groups
5.7. Threat intelligence
5.8. Information security in project management
5.9. Inventory of information and other associated assets
5.10. Acceptable use of information and other associated assets
5.11. Return of assets
5.12. Classification of information
5.13. Labelling of information
5.14. Information transfer
5.15. Access control
5.16. Identity management
5.17. Authentication information
5.18. Access rights
5.19. Information security in supplier relationships
5.20. Addressing information security within supplier agreements
5.21. Managing information security in the ICT supply chain
5.22. Monitoring, review and change management of supplier services 
5.23. Information security for use of cloud services
5.24. Information security incident management planning and preparation
5.25. Assessment and decision on information security events
5.26. Response to information security incidents
5.27. Learning from information security incidents
5.28. Collection of evidence
5.29. Information security during disruption
5.30.  Information and communication technology (ICT) readiness for business continuity
5.31. Legal, statutory, regulatory and contractual requirements
5.32. Intellectual property rights
5.33. Protection of records
5.34. Privacy and protection of personally identifiable information (PII)
5.35. Independent review of information security
5.36. Compliance with policies, rules and standards for information security
5.37. Documented operating procedures

6. People controls 

6.1. Screening
6.2. Terms and conditions of employment
6.3. Information security awareness, education and
6.4. Disciplinary process
6.5. Responsibilities after termination or change of
6.6. Confidentiality or non-disclosure agreements
6.7. Remote working
6.8. Information security event reporting

7. Physical controls 

7.1. Physical security perimeter
7.2. Physical entry
7.3. Securing offices, rooms and facilities
7.4. Physical security monitoring
7.5. Protecting against physical and environmental
7.6. Working in secure areas
7.7. Clear desk and clear screen
7.8. Equipment siting and protection
7.9. Security of assets off-premises 
7.10. Storage media
7.11. Supporting utilities
7.12. Cabling security
7.13. Equipment maintenance
7.14. Secure disposal or re-use of equipment 

8. Technological controls 

8.1. User endpoint devices
8.2. Privileged access rights
8.3. Information access restriction
8.4. Access to source code
8.5. Secure authentication
8.6. Capacity management
8.7. Protection against malware
8.8. Management of technical vulnerabilities
8.9. Configuration management
8.10. Information deletion
8.11. Data masking
8.12. Data leakage prevention
8.13. Information backup
8.14. Redundancy of information processing facilities
8.15. Logging
8.16. Monitoring activities
8.17. Clock synchronization
8.18. Use of privileged utility programs
8.19. Installation of software on operational systems
8.20. Network security
8.21. Security of network services
8.22. Segregation of networks 
8.23. Web filtering
8.24. Use of cryptography
8.25. Secure development life cycle
8.26. Application security requirements
8.27. Secure system architecture and engineering
8.28. Secure coding
8.29. Security testing in development and acceptance
8.30. Outsourced development
8.31. Separation of development, test and production
8.32. Change management
8.33. Test information
8.34. Protection of information systems during audit

Annexes Contains as below:

  • The matrix control of attributes is available in Annex Table "A.1", which can be filtered based on specific requirements. For instance, Table A.2 demonstrates an example of creating a view by filtering with a particular attribute value, such as #Corrective.
    • Control types (#Preventive, #Detective, #Corrective)
    • Information security properties (#Confidentiality, #Integrity, #Availability)
    • Cybersecurity concepts (#Identify, #Protect, #Detect, #Respond, #Recover)
    • Operational capabilities (#Governance, #Asset_management, #Information_protection, #Human_resource_security,   #Physical_security,   #System_and_network_security, #Application_security, #Secure_configuration, #Identity_and_access_management,           #Threat_and_vulnerability_management, #Continuity, #Supplier_relationships_security, #Legal_and_compliance, #Information_security_event_management, #Information_security_assurance)
    • Security domains (#Governance_and_Ecosystem, #Protection, #Defence, #Resilience)

  • Mapping of 2022 controls are mapped with 2013 under Annex B of the document Table B.1.
  • mapping of 2013 controls are mapped with 2022 under Annex B of the document Table B.2


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